Written by Eric Rasmussen on September 25, 2013.
The most generic definition of confidence in your code is “code that does what you think it does”. No easy task. In a codebase of even modest size, there is far too much room for flawed assumptions, edge cases, and other unexpectations. Programmers seem to agree that gaining confidence in your code is desirable, and there have emerged at least two broad categories of solutions:
Many inflammatory posts and twitter arguments have framed these camps as Types versus Tests, but the two aren’t mutually exclusive. If you’ve read my post on Making Code Reasonable, you may correctly guess that I prefer types, but I write tests (albeit for different purposes) either way.
Proponents of dynamic languages1 are frequently taught to solve problems in ways that can only be checked with tests, and this particular style of problem solving is one of the fundamental disconnects between the types and NoTypes crowds. Ask one of these people (including me!) how often they’ve had to write extra unit tests to make up for the lack of a good type system, and you’re likely to be met with a confused look and a “why, never!”
Case Study: hsmemoryquiz
Recently I had a somewhat frivolous project idea: a command-line program to help me learn the Dominic System (a technique for increasing memory skills). An explanation of the Dominic System and the program, hsmemoryquiz, are available on GitHub. We’ll look at some of the benefits of elevating data and abstractions to the type level.
Rethinking numbers and letters
The Dominic system is based on a mapping of the digits 0-9 to the letters O, A, B, C, D, E, S, G, H, and N. This foundation gives you the building blocks for working with all possible pairs of digits (00-99) and pairs of letters (OO-NN).
In many languages it would be practical (and expected) for you to model this data with the primitives for integers and characters. But if you enjoy obsessing over failure points in your program, this is unacceptable, because it means that every function or method using these values would need to account for the possibility of numbers outside the range 0-9.
Short of hideous, sprawling code with maddening error checking at every turn, it’s much more practical to define entry points for validating input before passing it to the underlying functions. You can then narrow the scope of your tests to those entry points and hope for the best.
But if we step back for a moment, we should be asking whether or not we need the full power of integers, characters, strings, and all of the libraries and built-ins capable of manipulating them.
Spoiler alert: we don’t!
We can create new data types that contain only the values we need:
data Digit = Zero | One | Two | Three | Four | Five | Six | Seven | Eight | Nine deriving (Eq, Enum) data DigitPair = DigitPair Digit Digit deriving Eq data Letter = A | B | C | D | E | S | G | H | N | O deriving (Show, Eq, Enum) data LetterPair = LetterPair Letter Letter deriving Eq
In the Dominic system there is an exact mapping of Digits to Letters, and in the Letter module of hsmemoryquiz we’ll need a way to create Letters from Digits. We can write a function with the following signature:
fromDigit :: Digit -> Letter
This simple declaration gives us powerful reasoning tools:
- The function is total; given a value of type Digit, we can produce a value of type Letter
- We can enforce at compile time that fromDigit cannot be called with anything but a Digit
- No logic or tests required to check input, because by definition we only accept Digits
Now we can operate with complete confidence2 that the function does what we expect, and does so without affecting other parts of our system. We’ve succeeded in pushing the need for validation further out, allowing us to write a more robust core that doesn’t need to consider the possibility of bad input (and if anyone tries, the program won’t compile).
Control flow and staircasing
Inevitably we will need to face the outside world, and types afford us many tools for combating bad input. In imperative languages, it’s common to ignore certain kinds of troublesome input and instead throw exceptions when things go awry. This is a pattern that is convenient to write, but complicates the flow of our programs. There is an added mental overhead in having to know which exceptions may be thrown and where they may or may not be caught.
Often we can obviate the need for exceptions by returning values that indicate some failure condition instead. The problem here is that if you have many values that work this way, you can end up with long, complicated code blocks. Let’s look at an example in python where any of the arguments may be a legitimate value or None:
def build_registry(foo, bar, baz): if foo is not None: if bar is not None: if baz is not None: return Registry(foo, bar, baz) return None
Now you can see why exceptions are so appealing here! It’s much simpler to try to make an instance of Registry and ask for forgiveness (in the form of a try/except block) than it is to constantly validate input. In many languages and frameworks the notion of an empty or bad value may vary as well, requiring you to sometimes check for null, undefined, empty strings, lists with a length of 0, etc.
What we’re really missing in these languages is a way to express values that may be more than one type. In Haskell we can achieve this with algebraic data types. One of the canonical examples is:
data Either a b = Left a | Right b
We can use this to unambiguously signify error conditions with the Left constructor and valid values with the Right. This would even allow us to define a concrete type Either String String and reliably differentiate the two cases without resorting to string matching, checking for null values, or checking for an empty string.
More importantly, we can use this as a basis for richer types that carry the notion of success or failure cases with them, rather than requiring the use of exceptions. Here’s an example from the Game module in hsmemoryquiz that runs a continuous quiz game:
playGame :: Quiz () playGame = do assoc <- nextAssociation res <- playRound assoc case res of Continue -> playGame Stop -> return ()
The Quiz moand stack includes ErrorT, which means that any time we run a computation in the Quiz monad (in this case, the first two lines in the do block), the value returned may be either an error or a valid value. There’s no need to alter the flow of the program or nest a long series of conditionals, because the types extracted from Quiz computations already carry that notion of failure with them. If the nextAssociation function is unsuccessful (i.e. it returns ErrorT’s Left case), then the playRound line will not be evaluated, and the entire block will evaluate to that Left case.
The function that runs the game can then pattern match on the final value to differentiate the two cases:
runGame :: Registry -> IO () runGame registry = do putStrLn "Welcome! Quit at any time with \":q\" or by pressing ctrl-c" res <- runQuiz registry newQuizState playGame case res of (Left e, q) -> putStrLn $ formatError e q (Right _, q) -> putStrLn $ formatSuccess q
A twist ending
Although I am very certain all of you will want to dedicate hundreds of hours to learning obscure memory techniques and practicing them with my program, the real motivation behind hsmemoryquiz was creating a fairly straightforward example of a Haskell command-line utility with several nice touches:
- Lots of code comments
- Command-line flag parsing
- Error handling through types
- QuickCheck test examples using hspec
- An interactive prompt via Haskeline (including interrupt handling)
There are of course plenty of great resources out there for learning Haskell, and this isn’t intended to be a canonical example of How to Write Haskell; there are much better and more interesting Haskell programs3.
But many full-featured utilities and programs are not written with beginners in mind. If you find yourself writing a lot of smaller utilities or single-file Haskell examples but haven’t quite taken the next step, I hope this will help you on your way.
1. “Dynamic” being a somewhat contentious term, used here to roughly mean “types that are checked at runtime”
2. Modulo the usual caveats (unsafePerformIO, error, non-termination)
3. A short list of programs that have inspired me: xmonad, hlint, hoogle, hakyll